Glossary of terms

Bacteria which, having been stained with a dye, retain their colour in acid alcohol. Used as a technique for microscopic detection of mycobacteria.

Systematically identifying people with active or latent TB using tests, examinations or other procedures.

European Conformity (Conformité Européenne)-in vitro diagnosti

An economic study design in which consequences of different interventions are measured using a single outcome, usually in natural units (e.g. life-years gained, cases detected, deaths averted).

chest X-ray

Disability-Adjusted Life Year

drug-resistant TB

drug susceptibility testing

extrapulmonary TB - active TB disease in any site other than the lungs or tracheobronchial tree

external quality assessment

fluoroquinolones, a collective term for a set of second-line TB drugs

Grading of recommendations, assessment, development and evaluation

high burden country

Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, a measure of the additional cost of a health care activity per unit of benefit (usually a QALY)

Low- and middle-income country

multidrug resistant TB, TB that is resistant to isoniazid and rifampin

nucleic acid amplification test

nongovernmental organization

non-tuberculous mycobacteria

National TB Programme

point of care

pulmonary TB

Quality adjusted life year, an index of survival that is adjusted to account for the person’s quality of life during this time. QALYs incorporate changes in both quantity and quality of life.

Randomised controlled trial, a comparative study in which participants are randomly allocated to intervention and control groups, and prospectively followed up to examine differences in outcomes between the groups.

rapid diagnostic test

An accepted standard, for example for a test, against which other interventions can be compared.

rifampicin-resistant TB

second-line injectable drug

Supranational Reference Laboratory

sputum smear microscopy


Target Product Profile

extensively drug resistant TB